Awareness and educational efforts are working to help prevent anabolic steroid abuse in schools and communities. The Adolescents Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids (ATLAS) and the Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise and Nutrition Alternatives (ATHENA) programs, funded by the NIDA, and supported by the Oregon Health & Science University programs is teaching athletes that they do not need steroids to build powerful muscles and improve athletic performance. These programs provide weight-training and nutrition alternatives, increase healthy behaviors, less likelihood to try steroids, and less likelihood to engage in other dangerous behaviors such as drinking and driving, use of marijuana and alcohol , and and improved body image. Bother Congress and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration endorsed these model prevention programs. 4
Testosterone esters have increasingly been used in replacement therapy, but abuse of these compounds has risen as well. A feature that all testosterone esters have in common is a testosterone molecule with a carboxylic acid group (ester linkage) attached to the 17-beta hydroxyl group. These esters differ in structural shape and size; they function only to determine the rate at which the testosterone is released from tissue. Generally, the shorter the ester chain, the shorter the drug's half-life and quicker the drug enters the circulation. Longer/larger esters usually have a longer half-life and are released into the circulation more slowly. Once in the circulation, the ester is cleaved, leaving free testosterone.